# Science, it still works!

Today I stumbled upon the following article. I encourage you to read the article, but for brevity I will sum it up. Basically, when creating a for loop in most C-based languages, there are two basic incrementation operators: Pre-increment (++i) and Post-increment (i++), with Post-increment being by far more common. From a functional standpoint, in C# they are equivalent within a loop and always produce the same output. The premise of the article is that while Post-incrementing is recommended by most computer science professors, due to it’s implementation in the ECMA standards it is actually slower than Pre-incrementation.

I tend to be a skeptic, so when I read the article I thought the author must have been mistaken. After all, I assumed that computer science is a field where something as common as the for loop would be well documented and understood by the academics. In order to test the author’s claim I decided to write some code to test how long it took each operator to iterate 1 billion times incrementing a variable on each iteration. Here is the code:

```using System;

namespace PostIncrementTest {
class Program {
static void Main(string[] args) {
const long reps = 1000000000;
for (int k = 0; k &lt; 10; k++) {
long temp = 0;
// Define start time
DateTime firstLoopStart = DateTime.Now;
// Do a Post-Increment Loop
for (long i = 0; i &lt; reps; i++) {
temp++;
}
// Define end time
DateTime firstLoopEnd = DateTime.Now;
temp = 0;
// Define start time
DateTime secondLoopStart = DateTime.Now;
// Do a Pre-Increment Loop
for (long i = 0; i &lt; reps; ++i) {
++temp;
}
// Define end time
DateTime secondLoopEnd = DateTime.Now;
TimeSpan firstLoopTime = firstLoopEnd - firstLoopStart;
TimeSpan secondLoopTime = secondLoopEnd - secondLoopStart;
Console.WriteLine(&quot;The post-increment loop took {0} seconds&quot;, firstLoopTime.TotalSeconds);
Console.WriteLine(&quot;The pre-increment loop took {0} seconds&quot;, secondLoopTime.TotalSeconds);
}
// Show that the operators produce the same output
for(int i = 0; i &lt; 10; i++)
{
Console.Write(i + &quot; &quot;);
}
Console.WriteLine();
for (int i = 0; i &lt; 10; i++) {
Console.Write(i + &quot; &quot;);
}
}
}
}
```

And the results:

While there is a measurable difference between the two operators, it is so minute that over the course of 1 billion iterations it only amounted to .02 seconds difference on average on my machine. In a loop used in an every day program, this would most likely make no measurable difference. Although the difference was minute, I may still start using the Pre-increment operator since it is such a small change.

# Interesting Read If You Have the Time

Today I was reading about managing hierarchical data using MySQL when I stumbled upon an excellent and extremely informative article. There’s nothing I can add to the article that isn’t better articulated there, so head on over and check it out!

# Making HTTP POST Requests in PHP

Recently at my job I have had several situations in which I needed to pass fairly large amounts of data to a particular page on a website for processing, and in which submitting a form isn’t a feasible option. Typically in this situation one would attempt to append the data to the url using GET parameters, but sometimes your data is too large or too sensitive to pass through the URL. Unfortunately, PHP does not provide an easy way to make post requests natively. Luckily for us, there is cURL. cURL allows us to communicate across multiple protocols to a variety of different server types. With cURL, we are able to make HTTP POST requests:

```function post_request(\$url, \$data) {
\$output = array();
foreach (\$data as \$key => \$value) {
if(is_object(\$value) || is_array(\$value)){
\$data[\$key] = serialize(\$value);
}
}
\$ch = curl_init();
curl_setopt(\$ch, CURLOPT_URL, \$url);
curl_setopt(\$ch, CURLOPT_POST, true);
curl_setopt(\$ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, true);
curl_setopt(\$ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, \$data);
\$result = curl_exec(\$ch);
if (\$result) {
\$output['status'] = "ok";
\$output['content'] = \$result;
} else {
\$output['status'] = "failure";
\$output['error'] = curl_error(\$ch);
}
curl_close(\$ch);
return \$output;

}
```

The above function accepts two parameters, the URL to make the request to, and an associative array containing the keys and values you would like to submit with your POST request. The function returns an associative array containing two values: status, which will either be equal to “ok” or “failure” depending on the success or failure of the POST request; and either ‘content’ or ‘error’ depending on success or failure. In the case of a successful POST request, ‘content’ will contain the full output from the page you have posted to (In other words, you may need to be prepared for an entire html document). Otherwise, ‘error’ will contain the details of the error as returned by cURL.

# Science, it works!

After my latest post there was a comment discussion about how to test the efficiency of one method of performing an action versus another. I looked at code profiling for Python, but everything seemed to be too complicated for what I wanted to do. I decided to use my own basic method for comparing the speed of each implementation. The blocks of code in question were:

```def collatz(start):
print start,
if start > 1:
if start % 2 == 0:
start = start / 2
collatz(start)
else:
start = start * 3 + 1
collatz(start)
```

and:

```def collatz(start):
while start != 1:
yield start
if start % 2 == 0:
start = start / 2
else:
start = start * 3 + 1
yield 1
```

Each block allowed the user to print the numbers in the Collatz Sequence from a given starting point. To test the efficiency of these blocks of code, I decided to stage a scientific(ish) experiment. I figured the best test would be to have each method loop through every number between 0 and 20,000 and print the Collatz Sequence to the screen for each number, recording the time it took to complete the task.

A few notes about the above method:

• Since one of the methods already prints to the screen, the initial test also had to print to the screen with the second method, which would require another logic block in the testing method. Since this is how one would have to access the numbers in the real world, I considered this acceptable
• In order to avoid statistical anomalies in my testing, I performed the test 15 times on each block of code. Normally I would expect more tests in order to provide statistically significant results, but each block of code was taking between 5 and 8 minutes to execute. Given that this was “for-fun” testing, I didn’t feel like wasting that much of my life waiting
• Computers are funny, especially if they are running Windows Vista. I did my best to minimize interference from the OS, but there are certainly a few outliers that suggest that I was not entirely successful. Measures I took to prevent interference included disabling my wireless card (my network often “hiccups”, leading to slowdowns as the OS tries to reconnect), disabling all superfluous programs and services, and running the test over night so that there would not be any interference from me opening files and programs
• The time recording was done by saving the system time to a variable before the operation started, and again as soon as it finished, and comparing the two and writing the difference to a file. This meant no human interaction at all

I ran the initial test with each method (just to make sure my test suite was working correctly), and was surprised by the results: the generator (my code) was slower by a full 2 minutes than the recursive function. I t was then that I noticed that there was a difference in how each was printed to a console window when executed: the generator printing each number on it’s own line, and the recursive function printing across the screen and wrapping. In order to make sure that the difference was not being caused by the print function, I changed my code so it would print like the other code. I ran the code again, and found the two pieces of code performed as follows:

Total time spent: 0:06:38.639000
Total time spent: 0:06:49.947000
Total time spent: 0:06:50.136000
Total time spent: 0:06:50.752000
Total time spent: 0:06:47.260000
Total time spent: 0:06:37.820000
Total time spent: 0:06:33.018000
Total time spent: 0:06:46.054000
Total time spent: 0:06:42.338000
Total time spent: 0:06:37.777000
Total time spent: 0:06:37.989000
Total time spent: 0:06:40.777000
Total time spent: 0:06:37.321000
Total time spent: 0:06:39.519000
Total time spent: 0:06:47.838000

Total time spent: 0:06:27.871000
Total time spent: 0:06:36.712000
Total time spent: 0:06:50.259000
Total time spent: 0:06:50.623000
Total time spent: 0:06:52.055000
Total time spent: 0:06:49.951000
Total time spent: 0:06:38.672000
Total time spent: 0:06:46.564000
Total time spent: 0:06:47.910000
Total time spent: 0:06:40.730000
Total time spent: 0:06:50.151000
Total time spent: 0:06:39.437000
Total time spent: 0:06:40.821000
Total time spent: 0:06:40.915000
Total time spent: 0:06:24.477000

As you can see, the two pieces of code perform virtually neck-and-neck in this capacity. I had to wonder though, if the print statement could make a difference of two minutes based upon whether or not each number had it’s own line what kind of difference would be made by not printing the numbers at all. The results are as follows:

Total time spent: 0:00:09.738000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.724000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.350000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.368000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.731000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.623000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.491000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.563000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.660000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.625000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.725000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.657000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.648000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.299000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.640000

Total time spent: 0:00:10.263000
Total time spent: 0:00:10.479000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.982000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.893000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.951000
Total time spent: 0:00:10.188000
Total time spent: 0:00:10.161000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.953000
Total time spent: 0:00:10.155000
Total time spent: 0:00:10.136000
Total time spent: 0:00:09.848000
Total time spent: 0:00:10.168000
Total time spent: 0:00:10.123000
Total time spent: 0:00:10.112000
Total time spent: 0:00:10.080000

Here, we are able to see not only the performance hit caused by printing the numbers (from 6 minutes to 10 seconds!), but that there is an average difference of about 1 second between the two pieces of code, with the generator pulling ever so slightly ahead.

# My Language Path

Everyone has to start somewhere. For me, I started early without knowing it. Somewhere in late Middle School or early High School I had to buy a graphing calculator for school, and ended up with a TI-85 new out of the box. Now, I should have known early on that something was abnormal in my brain because like always, the first thing I did when I opened my calculator was read the Instruction Manual.